Regular Expression Reference

   

Introduction

 

Regular Expressions are a widely-used method of specifying patterns of text to search for. Special meta characters allow you to specify, for instance, that a particular string you are looking for occurs at the beginning or end of a line, or contains n recurrences of a certain character.

 

Regular expressions look ugly for novices, but are really very simple, handy and powerful.

 

Regular expressions can be used in some actions and can also be used by plugin developers.  This reference documents the particular regular expression library used in FinalBuilder: TRegExpr, see http://www.regexpstudio.com/

 

Simple Matches

 

Any single character matches itself, unless it is a meta character with a special meaning described below.

 

A series of characters matches that series of characters in the target string, so the pattern "bluh" would match "bluh'' in the target string. Quite simple, eh ?

 

You can cause characters that normally function as meta characters or escape sequences to be interpreted literally by 'escaping' them by preceding them with a backslash "\", for instance: meta character "^" match beginning of string, but "\^" match character "^", "\\" match "\" and so on.

 

Examples:

 

 foobar          matches string 'foobar'

 \^FooBarPtr     matches '^FooBarPtr'

 

Escape Sequences

 

Characters may be specified using a escape sequences syntax much like that used in C and Perl: "\n'' matches a new line, "\t'' a tab, etc. More generally, \xnn, where nn is a string of hexadecimal digits, matches the character whose ASCII value is nn. If You need wide (Unicode) character code, You can use '\x{nnnn}', where 'nnnn' - one or more hexadecimal digits.

 

 \xnn     char with hex code nn

 \x{nnnn} char with hex code nnnn (one byte for plain text and two bytes for Unicode)

 \t       tab (HT/TAB), same as \x09

 \n       newline (NL), same as \x0a

 \r       car.return (CR), same as \x0d

 \f       form feed (FF), same as \x0c

 \a       alarm (bell) (BEL), same as \x07

 \e       escape (ESC), same as \x1b

 

Examples:

 

 foo\x20bar   matches 'foo bar' (note space in the middle)

 \tfoobar     matches 'foobar' predefined by tab

 

 

Character Classes

 

You can specify a character class, by enclosing a list of characters in [], which will match any one character from the list.

 

If the first character after the "['' is "^'', the class matches any character not in the list.

 

Examples:

 foob[aeiou]r   finds strings 'foobar', 'foober' etc. but not 'foobbr', 'foobcr' etc.

 

 foob[^aeiou]r  find strings 'foobbr', 'foobcr' etc. but not 'foobar', 'foober' etc.

 

Within a list, the "-'' character is used to specify a range, so that a-z represents all characters between "a'' and "z'', inclusive.

 

If You want "-'' itself to be a member of a class, put it at the start or end of the list, or escape it with a backslash. If You want ']' you may place it at the start of list or escape it with a backslash.

 

Examples:

 [-az]      matches 'a', 'z' and '-'

 

 [az-]      matches 'a', 'z' and '-'

 [a\-z]     matches 'a', 'z' and '-'

 [a-z]      matches all twenty six small characters from 'a' to 'z'

 [\n-\x0D]  matches any of #10,#11,#12,#13.

 [\d-t]     matches any digit, '-' or 't'.

 []-a]      matches any char from ']'..'a'.

 

 

Meta Characters

 

Meta characters are special characters which are the essence of Regular Expressions. There are different types of meta characters, described below.

 

Meta characters - line separators

 

 ^      start of line

 $      end of line

 \A     start of text

 \Z     end of text

 .      any character in line

 

Examples:

 ^foobar     matches string 'foobar' only if it's at the beginning of line

 foobar$     matches string 'foobar' only if it's at the end of line

 ^foobar$    matches string 'foobar' only if it's the only string in line

 

 foob.r      matches strings like 'foobar', 'foobbr', 'foob1r' and so on

 

The "^" meta character by default is only guaranteed to match at the beginning of the input string/text, the "$" meta character only at the end. Embedded line separators will not be matched by "^'' or "$''.

You may, however, wish to treat a string as a multi-line buffer, such that the "^'' will match after any line separator within the string, and "$'' will match before any line separator. You can do this by switching On the modifier /m.

 

The \A and \Z are just like "^'' and "$'', except that they won't match multiple times when the modifier /m is used, while "^'' and "$'' will match at every internal line separator.

 

The ".'' meta character by default matches any character, but if you switch off the modifier /s, then '.' won't match embedded line separators.

 

TRegExpr works with line separators as recommended at http://www.unicode.org/.

 

"^" is at the beginning of a input string, and, if modifier /m is On, also immediately following any occurrence of \x0D\x0A or \x0A or \x0D (if You are using Unicode version of TRegExpr, then also \x2028 or  \x2029 or \x0B or \x0C or \x85). Note that there is no empty line within the sequence \x0D\x0A.

 

"$" is at the end of a input string, and, if modifier /m is On, also immediately preceding any occurrence of  \x0D\x0A or \x0A or \x0D (if You are using Unicode version of TRegExpr, then also \x2028 or  \x2029 or \x0B or \x0C or \x85). Note that there is no empty line within the sequence \x0D\x0A.

 

"." matches any character, but if You switch Off modifier /s then "." doesn't match \x0D\x0A and \x0A and \x0D (if You are using Unicode version of TRegExpr, then also \x2028 and  \x2029 and \x0B and \x0C and \x85).

 

Note that "^.*$" (an empty line pattern) doesn't match the empty string within the sequence \x0D\x0A, but matches the empty string within the sequence \x0A\x0D.

 

Multiline processing can be easily tuned for Your own purpose with help of TRegExpr properties LineSeparators and LinePairedSeparator, You can use only Unix style separators \n or only DOS/Windows style \r\n or mix them together (as described above and used by default) or define Your own line separators!

 

Meta Characters - Predefined Classes

 

 \w     an alphanumeric character (including "_")

 \W     a non alphanumeric

 \d     a numeric character

 \D     a non-numeric

 \s     any space (same as [ \t\n\r\f])

 \S     a non space

 

You may use \w, \d and \s within custom character classes.

 

Examples:

 foob\dr     matches strings like 'foob1r', ''foob6r' and so on but not 'foobar', 'foobbr' and so on

 

 foob[\w\s]r matches strings like 'foobar', 'foob r', 'foobbr' and so on but not 'foob1r', 'foob=r' and so on

 

TRegExpr uses properties SpaceChars and WordChars to define character classes \w, \W, \s, \S, so You can easily redefine it.

 

 

Meta Characters - Word Boundaries

 

 \b     Match a word boundary

 \B     Match a non-(word boundary)

 

A word boundary (\b) is a spot between two characters that has a \w on one side of it and a \W on the other side of it (in either order), counting the imaginary characters off the beginning and end of the string as matching a \W.

 

Meta Characters - Iterators

 

Any item of a regular expression may be followed by another type of meta characters - iterators. Using this meta characters You can specify number of occurrences of previous character, meta character or sub-expression.

 

 *      zero or more ("greedy"), similar to {0,}

 +      one or more ("greedy"), similar to {1,}

 ?      zero or one ("greedy"), similar to {0,1}

 

 {n}    exactly n times ("greedy")

 {n,}   at least n times ("greedy")

 {n,m}  at least n but not more than m times ("greedy")

 *?     zero or more ("non-greedy"), similar to {0,}?

 +?     one or more ("non-greedy"), similar to {1,}?

 ??     zero or one ("non-greedy"), similar to {0,1}?

 {n}?   exactly n times ("non-greedy")

 {n,}?  at least n times ("non-greedy")

 {n,m}? at least n but not more than m times ("non-greedy")

 

So, digits in curly brackets of the form {n,m}, specify the minimum number of times to match the item n and the maximum m. The form {n} is equivalent to {n,n} and matches exactly n times. The form {n,} matches n or more times. There is no limit to the size of n or m, but large numbers will chew up more memory and slow down r.e. execution.

 

If a curly bracket occurs in any other context, it is treated as a regular character.

 

Examples:

 foob.*r     matches strings like 'foobar',  'foobalkjdflkj9r' and 'foobr'

 

 foob.+r     matches strings like 'foobar', 'foobalkjdflkj9r' but not 'foobr'

 foob.?r     matches strings like 'foobar', 'foobbr' and 'foobr' but not 'foobalkj9r'

 fooba{2}r   matches the string 'foobaar'

 fooba{2,}r  matches strings like 'foobaar', 'foobaaar', 'foobaaaar' etc.

 fooba{2,3}r matches strings like 'foobaar', or 'foobaaar'  but not 'foobaaaar'

 

A little explanation about "greediness". "Greedy" takes as many as possible, "non-greedy" takes as few as possible. For example, 'b+' and 'b*' applied to string 'abbbbc' return 'bbbb', 'b+?' returns 'b', 'b*?' returns empty string, 'b{2,3}?' returns 'bb', 'b{2,3}' returns 'bbb'.

 

You can switch all iterators into "non-greedy" mode (see the modifier /g).

 

 

Meta Characters - Alternatives

 

You can specify a series of alternatives for a pattern using "|'' to separate them, so that fee|fie|foe will match any of "fee'', "fie'', or "foe'' in the target string (as would f(e|i|o)e). The first alternative includes everything from the last pattern delimiter ("('', "['', or the beginning of the pattern) up to the first "|'', and the last alternative contains everything from the last "|'' to the next pattern delimiter. For this reason, it's common practice to include alternatives in parentheses, to minimize confusion about where they start and end.

 

Alternatives are tried from left to right, so the first alternative found for which the entire expression matches, is the one that is chosen. This means that alternatives are not necessarily greedy. For example: when matching foo|foot against "barefoot'', only the "foo'' part will match, as that is the first alternative tried, and it successfully matches the target string. (This might not seem important, but it is important when you are capturing matched text using parentheses.)

 

Also remember that "|'' is interpreted as a literal within square brackets, so if You write [fee|fie|foe] You're really only matching [feio|].

 

Examples:

 foo(bar|foo)  matches strings 'foobar' or 'foofoo'.

 

 

Meta Characters - Sub-Expressions

 

The bracketing construct ( ... ) may also be used for define r.e. sub-expressions (after parsing You can find sub-expression positions, lengths and actual values in MatchPos, MatchLen and Match properties of TRegExpr, and substitute it in template strings by TRegExpr.Substitute).

 

sub-expressions are numbered based on the left to right order of their opening parenthesis.

First sub-expression has number '1' (whole r.e. match has number '0' - You can substitute it in TRegExpr. Substitute as '$0' or '$&').

 

Examples:

 (foobar){8,10}  matches strings which contain 8, 9 or 10 instances of the 'foobar'

 foob([0-9]|a+)r matches 'foob0r', 'foob1r' , 'foobar', 'foobaar', 'foobaar' etc.

 

 

Meta characters - Back References

 

Meta characters \1 through \9 are interpreted as back references. \<n> matches previously matched sub-expression #<n>.

 

Examples:

 (.)\1+         matches 'aaaa' and 'cc'.

 (.+)\1+        also match 'abab' and '123123'

 (['"]?)(\d+)\1 matches '"13" (in double quotes), or '4' (in single quotes) or 77 (without quotes) etc

 

 

Modifiers

 

Modifiers are for changing behaviour of TRegExpr.

 

There are many ways to set up modifiers.

Any of these modifiers may be embedded within the regular expression itself using the (?...) construct.

Also, You can assign to appropriate TRegExpr properties (ModifierX for example to change /x, or ModifierStr to change all modifiers together). The default values for new instances of TRegExpr object defined in global variables, for example global variable RegExprModifierX defines value of new TRegExpr instance ModifierX property.

 

i

 

Do case-insensitive pattern matching (using installed in you system locale settings), see also InvertCase.

 

m

 

Treat string as multiple lines. That is, change "^'' and "$'' from matching at only the very start or end of the string to the start or end of any line anywhere within the string, see also Line separators.

 

s

 

Treat string as single line. That is, change ".'' to match any character whatsoever, even a line separators (see also Line separators), which it normally would not match.

 

g

 

Non standard modifier. Switching it Off You'll switch all following operators into non-greedy mode (by default this modifier is On). So, if modifier /g is Off then '+' works as '+?', '*' as '*?' and so on

 

x

 

Extend your pattern's legibility by permitting whitespace and comments (see explanation below).

 

r

 

Non-standard modifier. If is set then range à-ÿ additional include Russian letter '¸', À-ß  additional include '¨', and à-ß include all Russian symbols.

Sorry for foreign users, but it's set by default. If you want switch if off by default - set false to global variable RegExprModifierR.

 

 

 

The modifier /x itself needs a little more explanation. It tells the TRegExpr to ignore whitespace that is neither backslashed nor within a character class. You can use this to break up your regular expression into (slightly) more readable parts. The # character is also treated as a meta character introducing a comment, for example:

 

 

(

(abc) # comment 1

 |   # You can use spaces to format r.e. - TRegExpr ignores it

(efg) # comment 2

)

 

This also means that if you want real whitespace or # characters in the pattern (outside a character class, where they are unaffected by /x), that you'll either have to escape them or encode them using octal or hex escapes. Taken together, these features go a long way towards making regular expressions text more readable.

 

Perl Extensions

 

(?imsxr-imsxr)

You may use it in the regular expression for modifying modifiers on the fly. If the extension is inlined into a sub-expression, then it effects only into that sub-expression.

 

Examples:

 (?i)Saint-Petersburg       matches 'Saint-petersburg' and 'Saint-Petersburg'

 (?i)Saint-(?-i)Petersburg  matches 'Saint-Petersburg' but not 'Saint-petersburg'

 (?i)(Saint-)?Petersburg    matches 'Saint-petersburg' and 'saint-petersburg'

 

 ((?i)Saint-)?Petersburg    matches 'saint-Petersburg', but not 'saint-petersburg'

 

 

(?#text)

A comment, the text is ignored. Note that TRegExpr closes the comment as soon as it sees a ")", so there is no way to put a literal ")" in the comment.